GE gas turbines have experience operating on fuels with hydrogen content ranging from 5% (by volume) up to 100%.
running on hydrogen fuels*
of hydrogen experience
gas turbine capability
industry leading experience**
According to the latest McCoy Power Report, GE has more experience running gas turbines on hydrogen than any other OEM. In total, GE has 120+ gas turbines supporting power generation with hydrogen and associated fuels around the world. GE has combustion technologies that are capable of operating on a wide range of hydrogen concentrations up to ~100% (by volume).
Interested in finding out what needs to happen to achieve a 100% hydrogen future? Our on-demand webinar will walk you through the factors that will determine success.
The use of hydrogen as a gas turbine fuel has been demonstrated commercially, but there are differences between natural gas and hydrogen that must be taken into account to properly and safely use hydrogen in a gas turbine. With decades of experience running our entire fleet of gas turbines on varying levels of hydrogen—and with a path towards running on 100% hydrogen—GE has mastered operating hydrogen safely.
In addition to differences in the combustion properties of hydrogen and natural gas, it's also important to consider the impact to all gas turbine systems, as well as the overall balance of plant. In a power plant with one or more hydrogen-fueled turbines, changes may be needed to the fuel accessories, bottoming cycle components, and plant safety systems. GE’s broad field experience enables our engineers to understand the impact of using hydrogen as a gas turbine fuel.
As gas turbines are inherently fuel-flexible, they can be configured to operate on green hydrogen or similar fuels as a new unit, or be upgraded even after extended service on traditional fuels, i.e. natural gas. The scope of the required modifications to configure a gas turbine to operate on hydrogen depends on the initial configuration of the gas turbine and the overall balance of plant, as well as the desired hydrogen concentration in the fuel.
A color-based convention is being used internationally to describe and differentiate hydrogen production methods:
See our hydrogen solutions page to learn about how we can help enable the production of green hydrogen.
The cost of hydrogen produced by these different methods can vary widely with grey (or black) typically being the least expensive.
The price for hydrogen produced using the electrolytic processes (i.e., green, pink, red) depends primarily on the cost of the electricity used in the process and the utilization rate, or capacity factor of the electrolyzers. If you'd like to learn more about the resources required and opportunities when considering hydrogen fueled gas turbines, check out our calculator tool.
Want to learn more about how one company was able to expand its hydrogen capabilities? View our on-demand webinar.
Yes, it is possible to operate new units and upgrade existing units for operation on these fuels with appropriate consideration to the combustion system, fuel accessories, emissions, and plant systems. For existing units, these upgrades can be scheduled with planned outages to minimize the time the plant is not generating power, and for new units these capabilities can be part of the initial plant configuration or phased in over time as hydrogen becomes available.
Because hydrogen is more flammable than natural gas, critical aspects are considered to ensure the safe operation of a gas turbine with a natural gas/hydrogen fuel blend. For example, the gas turbine enclosure and ventilation system need to be designed to ensure the concentration of hydrogen is maintained outside of its upper and lower explosive limits.
Furthermore, hazardous gas and flame detection systems configured for typical hydrocarbon fuels may need to be supplemented with systems capable of detecting hydrogen.
There are other changes/upgrades that must be considered if you're thinking about safely running your powerplant on a hydrogen blend. If you'd like to learn more, get in touch with our team.
GE is continuing to develop increased hydrogen capability for its gas turbines through in-house R&D and testing as well as participating in US DOE hydrogen fuel programs. The goals of these efforts are to ensure that ever higher levels of hydrogen can be burned safely and reliably in GE’s gas turbines for decades to come.
We continue to support the global need for deep decarbonization, and recognize that there are multiple pathways to achieve low or near zero carbon emissions with gas turbines--through various pre or post-combustion methods. To learn more about this, you can read our whitepaper.
Hydrogen is difficult to store because of its extremely low volumetric density. It is the simplest, lightest and most abundant element in the universe. It is also extremely flammable… All of these qualities combined make its logistics and transportation very complicated.
Hydrogen must become energy dense to be stored. It can be compressed and stored as a gas using high-pressure tanks, or it can be liquefied using cryogenic technology.
Hydrogen is typically compressed to between 35 to 150 bar (~500 to ~2,200 psi) for pipeline transmission whereas the distribution system that provides gas to many end users typically operates at pressures less than ~7 bar (~100 psi). For storage, hydrogen is typically compressed to more than 350 bar (~5,000 psi. Hydrogen storage and transmission systems may require specialized high-pressure equipment and will require a significant amount of energy for compression. Liquefying hydrogen is even more of a challenge because it condenses from a gas into a liquid at less than -250º C (~-420º F), requiring a significant amount of energy for cooling the gas to this temperature, and special double-walled cryogenic tanks for storage.
Countries like Japan, South Korea, Australia and more, are taking the lead in advancing a hydrogen economy by announcing strategies, implementing government policy, making major infrastructure investments, and conducting supply chain research.
It can be transported in cryogenic liquid tanker trucks or gaseous tube trailers where demand is smaller. Major infrastructure and policy changes need to be made before substantial pipeline transportation of hydrogen becomes a reality.
Hydrogen, as a carbon-neutral fuel, is a pre-combustion way to decarbonize a gas turbine. Hydrogen-capable gas turbines and the subsequent upgrades required to a powerplant so it can safely run on hydrogen fuel can be implemented in a cost-effective way, however the full scope of implementing the use of hydrogen at scale needs to be considered.
Major changes to policies, incentives, and infrastructures and initial investments need to be made to make hydrogen a competitive and viable option.
GE believes that in order for the power sector to rapidly decarbonize while maintaining high levels of reliability, post-combustion decarbonization options for gas turbines should be considered as well, like carbon capture utilization and sequestration (CCUS)
Yes! According to the latest McCoy Power Report, GE has more experience running gas turbines on hydrogen than any other OEM. In total, GE has 100+ units* with 8M+ operating hours* running on hydrogen and similar low BTU fuels around the world.
GE has combustion technologies that are capable of operating on a wide range of hydrogen concentrations up to ~100% (by volume).
Today, our H-class, F-class, B/E-class and aeroderivative gas turbines are all capable of running on different levels of H2. It’s important to remember that actual hydrogen levels may vary based on the gas turbine model, combustion model, combustion system, and overall fuel consumption.
hydrogen capable GE gas turbines
"The combination of EEHC’s commitment and facilitation, GE’s global, industry-leading expertise in hydrogen-fueled power projects, and Hassan Allam and PGESCO’s strong on-the-ground construction and engineering capabilities, led to the extraordinary achievement of the safe, on time, and successful completion of this demonstration pilot."
Up to 70%
powered by GE's 7HA.03 gas turbines
"With GE’s cutting-edge HA technology, the Dania Beach Clean Energy Center is now one of the most fuel-efficient plants in the world and will save customers even more money while further reducing our environmental footprint."
LM2500 aero gas turbines
"This scale of investment in energy transition, generation and infrastructure cements our commitment to a sustainable, clean energy powered site, including GE’s LM2500 turnkey power plant solutions, to support us in continuing to produce the highest quality Australian-grown and made products."
initial hydrogen blending by volume to demonstrate the capability
capability of 7HA.02 to transition to hydrogen over time
"We are thrilled to work with the Long Ridge teams on this first-of-its kind GE HA-powered project that will drive a cleaner energy future by utilizing hydrogen to ultimately produce carbon-free power."
renewables by 2030
carbon by 2050
"Territory Generation sought technology to modernize our current fleet that struggles to meet changing grid demands and low power system loads. We plan for the TM2500 to be the first of multiple units to be deployed over the next five years as existing units near their end of life. At this stage, the TM2500 generator’s operational flexibility makes it the best fit to firm up the growing renewables base in the Northern Territory."
5% to 100%
GE’s gas turbine portfolio capabilities to burn hydrogen
contributed to the use of hydrogen by Australian Government
"Our new open-cycle, hydrogen-and-gas-capable turbine will provide firm capacity on a continuous basis and will pave the way for additional cleaner energy sources to enter the system. We are leading the sector by building the first net zero emissions hydrogen and gas capable power plant in New South Wales."
If you’re thinking about the possibility of using hydrogen on your next power generation project, you’re probably running into more questions than answers. Try out our calculator and get the facts around potential tax savings, as well as water and infrastructure required.
This paper provides an overview on how to use hydrogen as a gas turbine fuel to support low or near-zero carbon power generation, including current hydrogen capabilities of GE's gas turbines, requirements for upgrading existing turbines for operation on hydrogen fuels, and potential future technology options.
Our docuseries follows the stories of nine characters driving the coal-to-gas transition. This episode shows how Australia is kick-starting the hydrogen revolution as an energy source and potential new export.
Hear from GE’s Dr. Jeff Goldmeer on ESIG’s latest blog.
Listen in on a conversation between Dr. Jeff Goldmeer and Jeffrey Winters, editor in chief of Mechanical Engineering magazine, on hydrogen and its role in the energy future.
A special video report from Mechanical Engineering explores hydrogen’s future.
GE Gas Power’s Dr. Jeff Goldmeer takes a look at the combustion science behind transforming gas turbines into low or zero-carbon emitting systems.
Hear from GE executives formalizing our position on how to address climate change, as well as the opportunity to assume a key role in converging stakeholder action on this issue.
Once considered more of a periphery fuel, hydrogen has emerged front and center in 2020. Utility interest in H2 may soon begin showing up in long-term resource plans.
Urging a “decade of action” to help stem climate change, GE is calling on the energy sector to move more quickly toward decarbonization.
*GE H2 statistics as of September, 2023 – inclusive of both heavy-duty and aeroderivative gas turbines
**Source: GE and publicly available information