Postgres Service

PostgresService

Postgres service allows you to provision PostgreSQL databases instances and store your data in them. PostgreSQL is an object-oriented relational database management system to store data securely for retrieval at the request of other software applications.

The PostgreSQL offers features that emphasize extensibility and standards compliance. PostgreSQL supports multiple data types such as, XML, JSON, arrays, geometric, and many others in different domains.

The database can handle workloads ranging from single-machine applications to internet-facing applications with many concurrent users.

For more information and details about using PostgreSQL Database, see the PostgreSQL documentation.

Cloud Foundry Provisioning
After choosing a plan, you can provision and de-provision using the Cloud Foundry CLI.
cf create-service postgres-2.0 dedicated-5.1 my-db  -c '{"postgres_version":"12", “encryption_at_rest”:true}'
cf service my-db
cf delete-service my-db
High Availability
The database instances are configured for high availability and automatic failover. Every database instance has a standby synchronous replica in a separate datacenter. In case of an instance failure or a datacenter disruption, the standby synchronous replica takes over.
Superuser Access
A uniquely named database superuser role is created within every new instance. The credentials for the superuser role are provided to the Cloud Foundry apps via the VCAP_SERVICES environment variable. This user is a member of the system-defined postgres_dba role. The postgres_dba role should not be dropped or altered in any way. This initial superuser role can be used to create additional databases and additional roles in the instance. Any of those roles can also be granted access to the postgres_dba role. Membership in the role grants users broadly destructive operations. Use caution when assigning the postgres_dba role.
System Objects in the Database Instance
Every database instance has a database superuser named postgres_operator and a database named postgres_operator_db. Do not modify them in any way, as the service depends on them.
Automatic Backups and Retention
Database instances are backed-up automatically every day, at a system-chosen time. These automatic backups are retained for seven (7) days.
Maintenance Window
Database instances are automatically maintained during a weekly 30-minute maintenance window assigned by the system upon instance creation. While this window is not used frequently, you should be aware that it exists and that the maintenance may cause down time, however brief. If this window is inconvenient to you, you may request that its start time be changed. The maintenance window of a database instance is included in the database instance's credentials property, as discussed in the Credentials section.
Postgres Major-version Upgrades
Major version upgrades must be initiated explicitly, via the Cloud Foundry CLI. A DB Instance's major version is never upgraded automatically because the newer major versions of PostgreSQL may introduce backwards-incompatible changes. Please see PostgreSQL community policy for more details.
Postgres Minor-version Upgrades
Minor version upgrades are strictly bug fixes which are deemed by the PostgreSQL community to be safer to apply than to defer. They occur automatically after roll-out during the next maintenance window.

Credentials

Use credentials to identify the database service object.

There are a number of ways to identify the database service credentials. For example the credentials object is available in VCAP_SERVICES of an application. The following steps provide another way of inspecting the credentials.

  1. Find an existing service key.
     cf service-keys my-db
  2. Create a service key, if you cannot find one that is already usable by you.
    cf create-service-key my-db my-db-key
  3. Get the credentials.
    cf service-key my-db my-db-key
     ...
     {
      "hostname": "db-hostname",
      "port": 5432,
      "database": "postgres",
      "username": "username",
      "password": "password",
      "uri": "postgres://username:[email protected]:5432/dbname",
      "uuid": "4ac6cb37-f486-4d71-a339-eb46bce4e399",
      "allocated_storage": 10,
      "maintenance_window": "fri:03:00-fri:03:30"
      "encryption_at_rest":true
     }

Using the Postgres Service

Postgres service uses Postgres and allows you to choose the major version.

Choosing a Postgres Version
When creating a new database instance, you must specify a Postgres major version using a JSON object which consists of the postgres_version key and the corresponding value, as follows:
cf create-service postgres-2.0 dedicated-5.1 my-db -c '{"postgres_version":"12", "encryption_at_rest":true}'
Point-in-time Recovery
Point-in-time Recovery (PITR) creates a new instance whose state begins at your chosen point in the past, up to seven (7) days, for an existing instance. From that moment forward, the new instance is independent of its parent. Storage for the new instance is general-purpose SSD, just as it is when creating ordinary instances. The new instance must be created with the same plan as the existing instance. PITR can be used for recovery from human errors like unqualified deletes, and for creating development databases which need to contain a data set which reflects production. The unique ID (uuid) of a database instance is included in the credentials property, as shown in the section.
Use unique ID (uuid) to create a new service instance:
cf create-service postgres-2.0 dedicated-5.1 my-db-clone -c '{
    "restore_from" : {
        "source_db_instance_id": "4ac6cb37-f486-4d71-a339-eb46bce4e399",
        "restore_to_time": "2016-08-01T23:52:25Z"
    }
}'

Creating service instance my-app-clone in org my-org / space test as [email protected]
OK
You must specify the value of the restore_to_time parameter in UTC. An instance created using PITR inherits the data and many configuration settings from the instance from which it is created, so specifying encryption_at_rest or postgres_version in a PITR request is an error. To check on the progress of service creation started by the above command, use the cf service command.
cf service my-db-clone
Service instance: my-db-clone
...

Last Operation
Status: create succeeded
...
After successful creation of the new instance, you can cf unbind the application from the previous instance and cf bind it to the new instance. Alternatively, you can use cf rename-service to achieve desired configuration.
Upgrading the DB Instance Postgres major-version
You can upgrade the Postgres major-version of your DB instance using the Cloud Foundry CLI as shown below:
cf update-service my-db -c '{"postgres_version":"12"}'

During the upgrade process, the DB Instance is unavailable and applications cannot connect to it. The duration of the DB instance downtime depends on the size of the database.

Note that you can only specify the Postgres major-version you want to upgrade to. The Postgres service automatically chooses the latest minor-version for the specified major-version.

Changing the Plan of a Service Instance
You can change the plan of the Cloud Foundry Postgres Service Instance in Cloud Foundry using the CLI, for example:
cf update-service my-db -p dedicated-10.1

During the update process, the DB Instance is unavailable and applications cannot connect to it.

Increasing DB Instance Storage
You can increase the storage allocation of your DB instance by using Cloud Foundry CLI, for example:
cf update-service my-db -c '{"allocated_storage":100}'

This is an asynchronous operation, and can take some time to finish. The database remains available during execution, although you might experience a minor performance impact.

Set the "allocated_storage" parameter value to be the database's allocated storage in GB. You cannot use this command to decrease the allocated storage for a DB instance.

Encryption at Rest
Postgres service instances support encryption at rest. All storage instances are encrypted with a unique encryption key except when they are created using Point-in-Time-Recovery (PITR). Database instances created using PITR inherit the encryption key from the instance they are created from. When creating a new database instance, you must enable storage encryption using a JSON object which consists of one key, encryption_at_rest and the corresponding boolean value in command line format:
cf create-service postgres-2.0 dedicated-5.1 my-db –c '{"postgres_version":"12", "encryption_at_rest":true}'

Connecting to the Postgres Service

Only applications in the Cloud Foundry environment are allowed to connect to the DB instances provisioned by the Postgres Service.

You may connect to your PostgreSQL DB Instance using the pgStudio application. Directions for installing and using pgStudio are provided in KB0010829.