Ms. Schapiro is a graduate of Franklin & Marshall College and earned a law degree from George Washington University Law School. She served as the 29th chairman of the SEC from January 2009 through December 2012. From April 2013 to January 2014, she was a managing director and chairman of the Governance and Markets Practice at Promontory Financial Group, and since January 2014 she has served as Vice Chair of the Promontory Advisory Board and as a board member of Promontory Interfinancial Network. She is also a director of the London Stock Exchange Group plc. Prior to becoming chairman of the SEC, Ms. Schapiro served as chief executive officer of FINRA from 2006 through 2008. She joined that organization in 1996, serving as president of NASD Regulation from 1996 to 2002 and as vice chairman from 2002 to 2006, when she was named chairman. Ms. Schapiro previously served as a commissioner of the SEC from December 1988 to October 1994, and left the SEC when appointed chairman of the CFTC, where she served until 1996.